Technical Papers

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Technical Papers

“Pilot Anode Testing of Alternative Binder and CPC Raw Materials” Light Metals, 2015
By Winfried Boenigk, Claudia Boltersdorf, Christopher Kuhnt, Jens Stiegert, Les Edwards, and Marvin Lubin Summary: The value of pilot anode testing for evaluating...
“The History and Future Challenges of Calcined Petroleum Coke Production and Use in Aluminum Smelting”
A review paper by Les Edwards, Rain CII Chief Technology Officer Summary: Calcined petroleum coke is used for the production of carbon anodes in the Hall-Héroult...
“Impurity Level Distribution in GPC and CPC and Impact on Anode Properties”
Light Metals, 2014, 1093-1098
By Les Edwards. Aluminum smelter specifications for trace metal impurities in calcined petroleum coke (CPC) are based on a bulk analysis of the coke. Recent experien...
“Observations on the Coke Air Reactivity Test”
Light Metals, 2013, 1051-1056
By Keith Neyrey, Les Edwards, and James Marino. The ISO Coke Air Reactivity test has been used by the smelting industry for many years but its use as a calcined cok...
“Impact of Higher Vanadium Levels on Smelter Operations”
Light Metals, 2013, 21-25
By Chuck Coney, Lew Crabtree, John Gavin, Wes Marcrum, Andrea Weber, and Les Edwards. In early 2011, the Rio Tinto - Sebree Works smelter experienced a significant ...
“Calcined Coke Round Robin 19 and the Precision of Bulk Density Tests”
Light Metals, 2013, 1063-1068
By L-P Lossius, Marvin Lubin, and Les Edwards. Round Robins (RRs) are useful for laboratories to benchmark performance against other labs. RR19 was a collaboration b...
“Improving the Precision and Productivity of Green Coke Volatile Matter Analysis”
Light Metals, 2012, 1267-1272
By Kevin Hon, Jim Marino, Les Edwards, and Marvin Lubin. Volatile matter (VM) analysis of green petroleum coke is an important measurement for determining the calci...
“Evolution of Anode Coke Quality”
Light Metals, 2012, 1207-1212
By Les Edwards, N. Backhouse, H. Darmstadt, and Marie-Josie Dion. The petroleum refining industry has historically categorized petroleum cokes as fuel, anode, or ne...
“Property Profile of Lab-Scale Anodes Produced with 180°C Mettler Coal Tar Pitch”
Light Metals, 2011
By Winfried Boenigk, Claudia Boltersdorf, Falk Lindner, and Jens Stiegert The PAH-induced toxicity of coal tar pitch decreases with increasing softening temperature....
“Evolution of Anode Grade Coke Quality and Calcining Technology”
10th Australasian Smelting Technology Conference, Launceston, Tasmania, Oct 9-14, 2011
By Les Edwards. The outlook for anode grade coke quality continues to be challenging and this paper will provide an update on the situation since the last Australas...
“Improving the Repeatability of Coke Bulk Density Testing”
Light Metals, 2011, 947-952
By Les Edwards, M. Lubin, and J. Marino. The “Pechiney” mercury apparent density test was used by the aluminium industry for many years to measure the density o...
“Quality and Process Performance of Rotary Kilns and Shaft Calciners”
Light Metals, 2011, 895-900
By Les Edwards. Rotary kilns have been used successfully for many years to produce calcined coke for the aluminium industry and they offer a high level of automati...
“Use of Shot Coke as An Anode Raw Material”
Light Metals, 2009, 985-990
By Les Edwards, Franz Vogt, Mike Robinette, Ric Love, Anthony Ross, Marilou McClung, R.J. Roush, and William Morgan. With the aluminum industry’s rapidly growing d...
“Coke and Anode Desulfurization Studies”
Light Metals, 2008, 881-886
By Lorentz Petter Lossius, Keith Neyrey, and Les Edwards. The sulfur level of high sulfur cokes used by the calcining industry for blending is increasing. During ca...
“Responding to Changes in Coke Quality”
9th Australasian Aluminium Smelting Technology Workshop, Terrigal, NSW, Nov 5- 9, 2007
By Les Edwards. Changes in the petroleum refining industry over the last several years are impacting the quality and availability of anode grade petroleum coke for ...
“The Outlook for Green Coke Used in Aluminum Smelting 2007 – 2011”
CRU Aluminium Conference, Bahrain, May 2007
By Ron Garbarino. In 2006 approximately 34 million tons of primary aluminum were produced requiring about 13.5 million tons of calcined coke. Looking ahead, calcined...
“A Review of Coke and Anode Desulfurization”
Light Metals, 2007, 895-900
By Les Edwards, Keith Neyrey, and Lorentz Petter Lossius. During calcination, petroleum coke desulfurizes depending on the sulfur content and final temperature. Thi...
“A Tool for Predicting Anode Performance of Non-Traditional Calcined Cokes”
Light Metals, 2005
By Keith Neyrey, Les Edwards, J.A. Ross, and Franz Vogt. The supply of traditional calcinable green coke is not meeting demand, so calciners have been using green c...
“Mg0-C-Bricks Produced in a Cold-Mixing Process Using a Graphitic Binder System”
Stahl & Eisen 2004, v.124, issue 13, p.46-51
By Winfried Boenigk, Christoph Jacob, Dirk Schnitzler, Jens Stiegert, Christos G. Aneziris, Dmitry Borzov, and Joachim Ulbricht A two-component binder system was dev...
“A Preview of Anode Coke Quality”
Light Metals, 2004
By Franz Vogt, Bob Tonti, Maia Hunt, and Les Edwards. Demand for petroleum coke for aluminum smelting anodes reached about 10.4 million metric tons in 2003. This cr...
“Anode Quality Improvements at the Valesul Smelter”
Light Metals, 2003, 535-538
By Gustavo Franca, Carlos Mesquita, Les Edwards, and Franz Vogt. Valesul Aluminio S/A is a 93,000 tonne per year smelter located in the suburbs of Rio de Janeiro, B...
“Production of Low PAH Pitch
for Use in Soederberg Smelters”
Light Metals, 2002
By Winfried Boenigk, Gord Gilmet, Dirk Schnitzler, Jens Stiegert, and Mike Sutton The legal understanding of PAHs differs from its scientific definition. Therefore t...
“An Examination of the Difference Between the Platinum and Quartz Crucible Method for Petroleum Coke Volatile Matter Determination”
AIChE Spring Meeting, New Orleans, March 10-14, 2002
By Keith Neyrey, Maia Hunt, and Lynne Falk. The measurement of volatile matter is important in determining whether green petroleum coke is acceptable for non-fuel ap...
“Coke Blending at Anglesey Aluminium”
Light Metals, 2001
By Les Edwards, Franz Vogt, and John Wilson. For commercial and logistical reasons, the Anglesey Aluminium smelter has operated with two different coke sources over ...
“CARBORES® — A Carbon Speciality
to Improve the Performance
of Refractories Bound with Phenolic Resins”
EUROCARBON 2000, 1st World Conference on Carbon, Berlin, July 9-13, 2000
By Winfried Boenigk, D. Schnitzler, J. Stiegert, G. Buchebner, and S. Grassegger BOF-vessels and electric arc furnaces are the major production facilities for the pr...

Rain CII has a strong customer focus and a history of working collaboratively with customers to solve specific technical problems and industry wide problems. We have organized 21 Carbon Symposiums at various locations around the world and are very active in publishing important and useful technical papers – 14 in the past decade.